Glutamate in dopamine neurons synaptic versus diffuse transmission it may be asked how and what regulates the dual da glutamate phenotype during development and in disease asynaptic and synaptic of the dopamine innervation in adult rat neostriatum a quantitative autoradiographic and immunocytochemical analysis j comp neurol . Developmental neuroscience is a multidisciplinary journal publishing papers covering all stages of invertebrate vertebrate and human brain development emphasis is placed on publishing fundamental as glutamate and dopamine in the developing and adult neostriatum. The ability of dopamine da neurons to release other transmitters in addition to da itself has been increasingly recognized hence the concept of their multilingual nature a subset of da neurons mainly found in the ventral tegmental area express vglut2 allowing them to package and release glutamate onto striatal spiny projection neurons and cholinergic interneurons. Although the importance of dopamine da for prefrontal cortical pfc cognitive functions is widely recognized the nature of da actions in the pfc remains controversial a critical component in da actions is its modulation of glutamate transmission which can be different when specific receptors are activated to obtain a clear picture of cellular mechanisms involved in these interactions . Adult striatal dopaminergic cells are such a population in that they responded to dopamine denervation by increasing in number this is of tremendous potential interest particularly if they can be recruited to manufacture and release dopamine within the striatum in parkinsons disease
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